References

REFERENCE MATERIAL

IMPORTANT NOTE:  The ASTAR Automated Resource-based Commerce System (ARC) is the future generation system of global exchange, and follows some of the same technical components as are within the Bitcoin introduction.  

In addition, ARC offers an automatic account value for the existence of each individual participant, and is fully backed by natural resources and other dedicated assets as brought forth by true humanitarians.

For those interested in researching some of the technical aspects of the program’s operational backdrop, the following references serve to offer insight.

Digital Economic References [#]

1. Ron Dorit; Adi Shamir (2012). “Quantitative Analysis of the Full Bitcoin Transaction Graph”. Cryptology e Print Archive. Retrieved 18 October 2012.

2. “Cracking the Bitcoin: Digging Into a $131M USD Virtual Currency”. Daily Tech. 12 June 2011. Archived from the original on 20 January 2013. Retrieved 30 September 2012.

3. Jon Matonis (17 September 2013). “Bitcoin gaining market-based legitimacy as XBT”. Coindesk. Retrieved 14 December 2013.

4. “Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System”. bitcoin.org. October 2008. Retrieved 28 April 2014.

5.”Regulation of Bitcoin in Selected Jurisdictions”. The Law Library of Congress, Global Legal Research Center. January 2014. Retrieved 9 April 2014.

6. Bustillos, Maria (2 April 2013). “The Bitcoin Boom”. The New Yorker. Condé Nast. Retrieved 22 December 2013. “(Standards vary, but there seems to be a consensus forming around Bitcoin, capitalized, for the system, the software, and the network it runs on, and bitcoin, lowercase, for the currency itself.)”

7. For WSJ, see Vigna, Paul (3 March 2014). “BitBeat: Is It Bitcoin, or bitcoin? The Orthography of the Cryptography”. WSJ. Retrieved 21 April 2014.

  • For Chronicle of Higher Ed, see Metcalf, Allan (14 April 2014). “The latest style”. Lingua Franca blog. The Chronicle of Higher Education (chronicle.com). Retrieved 19 April 2014.

8. “Bitcoin Goes To Washington, Senate To Hold Hearing On Virtual Currencies”. International Business Times. 18 November 2013. Retrieved 3 April 2014.

9. Murphy, Kate (31 July 2013). “Virtual Currency Gains Ground in Actual World”. The New York Times. Retrieved 6 May 2014. “A type of digital cash, bitcoins were invented in 2009 and can be sent directly to anyone, anywhere in the world.”

10. Jerry Brito and Andrea Castillo (2013). “Bitcoin: A Primer for Policymakers”. Mercatus Center. George Mason University. p. 5.Retrieved 22 October 2013.

11.”How do I get Bitcoins? (For Beginners)”. The Bitcoin Bulletin. 11 March 2011. Retrieved 13 December 2013.

12. Joshua A. Kroll, Ian C. Davey, Edward W. Felten (11–12 June 2013). “The Economics of Bitcoin Mining, or Bitcoin in the Presence of Adversaries”. The Twelfth Workshop on the Economics of Information Security (WEIS 2013): Retrieved 8 May 2014. “If the value paid out of a transaction (in Bitcoins) is less than the amount put in, the difference is treated as a transaction fee that can be collected by whoever manages to mine a block containing that transaction. A transaction fee is like a tip or gratuity left for the miner.”

13. “BitPay Passes 10,000 Bitcoin-Accepting Merchants On Its Payment Processing Network”. Techcrunch. Techcrunch.com. 16 September 2013. Retrieved 21 October 2013.

14. Wingfield, Nick (30 October 2013). “Bitcoin Pursues the Mainstream”. The New York Times. Retrieved 4 November 2013.

15.”Warning to consumers on virtual currencies”. 1 EBA/WRG/2013/01. European Banking Authority. 12 December 2013. pp. 1–3. Retrieved 18 April 2014.

16.    Jump up^ For theft, see Nathaniel Popper (5 December 2013). “In the Murky World of Bitcoin, Fraud Is Quicker Than the Law”. The New York Times. Retrieved 12 December 2013.

  • For lack of chargebacks, see Jerry Brito and Andrea Castillo (2013). “Bitcoin: A Primer for Policymakers”.    Mercatus Center. George Mason University. p. 12. Retrieved 22 October 2013.

17. Grocer, Stephen (2 Jul 2013). “Beware the Risks of the Bitcoin: Winklevii Outline the Downside”. Moneybeat (The Wall Street Journal). Retrieved 21 October 2013.

18. Tracy, Ryan (5 November 2013). “Bitcoin Comes Under Senate Scrutiny”. The Wall Street Journal.

19. Andy Greenberg (23 October 2013). “FBI Says It’s Seized $28.5 Million In Bitcoins From Ross Ulbricht, Alleged Owner Of Silk Road” (blog). Forbes.com. Retrieved 24 November 2013.

20. Peterson, Andrea (27 January 2014). “This map shows which countries are friendly to Bitcoin”. The Switch (The Washington Post). Retrieved 28 January 2014.

21. Ramzan, Zulfikar (1 May 2013). “Bitcoin: Transaction block chains”. khanacademy.org. Khan Academy. Retrieved 15 April 2014.

22. Ramzan, Zulfikar. “Bitcoin: What is it?”. The Khan Academy. Retrieved 5 April 2014.

23. Ashlee Vance (14 November 2013). “2014 Outlook: Bitcoin Mining Chips, a High-Tech Arms Race”. BusinessWeek. Retrieved 24 November 2013.

24. Ritchie S. King Sam Williams David Yanofsky (17 December 2013). “By reading this article, you’re mining bitcoins”. qz.com. Atlantic Media Co. Retrieved 17 December 2013.

25. “How much will the transaction fee be?”  FAQ. Bitcoin Foundation. Retrieved 19 March 2014.

26. Rockman, Simon (2014-01-17). “Manic miners: Ten Bitcoin generating machines”. The Register. Retrieved 2014-02-13.

27. Bays, Jason (9 April 2014). “Bitcoin offers speedy currency, poses high risks”. Purdue Exponent. The Exponent Online. Retrieved 14 April 2014.

28. Mills, Kelly (3 April 2014). “Bitcoins lose viability”. The Arbiter. Boise State Student Media. Retrieved 14 April 2014.

29. Simonite, Tom (5 September 2013). “Mapping the Bitcoin Economy Could Reveal Users’ Identities”. MIT Technology Review. Retrieved 2 April 2014.

30. Lee, Timothy (21 August 2013). “Five surprising facts about Bitcoin”. washingtonpost.com (The Washington Post). Retrieved 2 April 2014.

31. For use of different address for each transaction, see McMillan, Robert (6 JUNE 13). “How Bitcoin lets you spy on careless companies”. wired.co.uk. Conde Nast. Retrieved 2 April 2014.

  • For mixing services, see Matonis, John (6/05/2013). “The Politics Of Bitcoin Mixing Services”: forbes.com(Forbes). Retrieved 2 April 2014.

32. Bar-El, Hagai (3 April 2014). “Bitcoin does not provide anonymity”.

33. Sarah Meiklejohn (23 October 2013). “A Fistful of Bitcoins: Characterizing Payments Among Men with No Names”.

34. Jervis, Rick (2014-02-20). “Bitcoin ATMs come to USA”. USA Today.

  • For buying in person, see Lauren Orsini (2013-10-23). “Here’s What Happened When I Bought Bitcoin In Person”. Business Insider. Retrieved 2014-02-04.

35. Steadman, Ian (2013-04-26). “Study: 45 percent of Bitcoin exchanges end up closing”: Wired. Retrieved 2013-04-28.

36. Bustillos, Maria. “The Future of Bitcoin”. The New Yorker. Retrieved 3 December 2013.

37. For wallets holding bitcoins, see Adam Serwer and Dana Liebelson (10 April 2013). “Bitcoin, Explained”.motherjones.com. Mother Jones. Retrieved 26 April 2014.

  • For wallets storing bitcoins, see Villasenor, John (2014-04-26). “Secure Bitcoin Storage: A Q&A With Three Bitcoin Company CEOs”: forbes.com. Forbes. Retrieved 26 April 2014.

38. Villasenor, John (2014-04-26). “Secure Bitcoin Storage: A Q&A With Three Bitcoin Company CEOs”.forbes.com. Forbes: Retrieved 26 April 2014.

39. “Bitcoin: Bitcoin under pressure”. The Economist. 30 November 2013. Retrieved 30 November 2013.

40. Staff, Verge (2013-12-13). “Casascius, maker of shiny physical bitcoins, shut down by Treasury Department”. The Verge. Retrieved 2014-01-10.

41. Daniel Cawrey (@danielcawrey) (2013-12-20). “Canadian Man Builds World’s First Wooden Bitcoin Wallet”. Coindesk.com. Retrieved 2014-01-10.

42. Skudnov, Rostislav (2012): Bitcoin Clients (Bachelor’s Thesis). Turku University of Applied Sciences. Retrieved 2014-01-16.42. Skudnov, Rostislav (2012): Bitcoin Clients (Bachelor’s Thesis). Turku University of Applied Sciences. Retrieved 2014-01-16

43. http://www.coindesk.com/bitcoin-version-0-9-0-brings-transaction-malleability-fixes-branding-change/.

44. Moore, Tyler and Nicolas Christin (April 2013). Beware the Middleman: Empirical Analysis of Bitcoin-Exchange Risk. In Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data Security (FC’13).

45. Rubens, Paul (17 December 2013). “BBC News – Cybercrime shopping list study points to falling prices”. Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 17 December 2013.

46 Danny Bradbury (2013-12-27). “5 things to do with those Christmas bitcoins”. Coindesk.com. Retrieved 2014-01-14.

47. “Man Throws Away 7,500 Bitcoins, Now Worth $7.5 Million”. CBS DC. 29 November 2013. Retrieved 23 January 2014.

48. Thompson, Jennifer (21 March 2014). “Mt Gox finds 200,000 ‘lost’ Bitcoins in old wallet”. Financial Times. Retrieved 23 March 2014.

49. Buterin, Vitalik (2013-03-12). “Bitcoin Network Shaken by Blockchain Fork”. Bitcoin Magazine. Retrieved 2014-01-17.

50. Skelton, Andy (15 November 2012). “Pay Another Way: Bitcoin”. WordPress: Retrieved 24 April 2014.

51. Franceschi-Bicchierai, Lorenzo (18 April 2013). “OKCupid Now Accepts Bitcoin”. Mashable. Retrieved 24 April 2014.

52. Dahlberg, Nancy (23 January 2014). “TigerDirect.com to accept Bitcoin”. Miami Herald Business. Miami Herald. Retrieved 26 January 2014.

53. Vaishampayan, Saumya (9 January 2014). “Bitcoin now accepted on Overstock.com through VC-backed Coinbase”. marketwatch.com. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 10 February 2014.

54. Jeremy Kirk (2013-05-19). “Electronic Frontier Foundation again takes bitcoin donations”. PCWorld: Retrieved 2014-01-25.

55. For 2011 stoppage, see Cohn, Cindy (20 June 2011). “EFF and Bitcoin”. Electronic Frontier Foundation. Retrieved 16 April 2014.

  • For EFF accepting bitcoins as of 2013, see CINDY COHN AND PETER ECKERSLEY AND RAINEY REITMAN AND SETH SCHOEN (17 May 2013). “EFF Will Accept Bitcoins to Support Digital Liberty”. Electronic Frontier Foundation. Retrieved 27 April 2014.

56. Dillet, Romain (16 May 2013). “Feds Seize Assets From Mt. Gox’s Dwolla Account, Accuse It Of Violating Money Transfer Regulations”: TechCrunch. Retrieved 15 May 2013.

57. Farrell, Greg (3 October 2013). “FBI Snags Silk Road Boss With Own Methods”. Bloomberg (New York). Retrieved 27 October 2013.

58. Kapur, Saranya (OCT. 15, 2013). “China’s Google Is Now Accepting Bitcoin”. businessinsider.com. Business Insider, Inc. Retrieved 26 December 2013.

59. “As Chinese Investors Pile Into Bitcoin, China’s Oldest Exchange, BTC China, Raises $5M From Lightspeed”: TechCrunch. Retrieved 2014-01-10.

60. “BBC News – ‘Legitimate’ Bitcoin’s value soars after Senate hearing”. Bbc.co.uk. 2013-11-19. Retrieved 2014-01-10.

61. Lee, Cyrus (22 November 2013). “China no plans yet to legalize use of Bitcoins”. ZDNet. Retrieved 27 November 2013.

62. Kelion, Leo (18 December 2013). “Bitcoin sinks after China restricts Yuan exchanges”. bbc.com (BBC). Retrieved 20 December 2013.

63. “China bans banks from bitcoin transactions”: The Sydney Morning Herald. 6 December 2013.

64.”Baidu Stops Accepting Bitcoins After China Ban”. Bloomberg (New York). 7 December 2013. Retrieved 11 December 2013.

65. “China bars use of virtual money for trading in real goods”: English.mofcom.gov.cn. 2009-06-29. Retrieved 2014-01-10.

66. McMillan, Robert (2013-10-29). “Take a tour of Robocoin, the world’s first Bitcoin ATM”. Wired.

67. Raskin, Max (18 November 2013). “U.S. Agencies to Say Bitcoins Offer Legitimate Benefits”. Bloomberg. Retrieved 24 November 2013.

68. By Todd Wasserman2013-11-18 14:06:30 UTC (2013-11-18). “Bitcoin Tops $600, Up 60x Over the Last Year”. Mashable.com. Retrieved 2014-01-10.

69. “Bitcoin Set to Boom in Latin America”. Blog.panampost.com. 2014-01-02. Retrieved 2014-01-07.

70. Lee, Dave (27 January 2014). “US makes Bitcoin exchange arrests after Silk Road closure”. bbc.co.uk(BBC). Retrieved 28 January 2014.

71.    Jump up^ For Mt. Gox being a large exchange, see “MtGox gives bankruptcy details”. bbc.com. BBC. 4 March 2014. Retrieved 13 March 2014.

  • For suspended withdrawals, see Biggs, John (2014-02-10). “What’s Going On With Bitcoin Exchange Mt. Gox?”: TechCrunch. Retrieved 2014-02-26.

72.”MtGox bitcoin exchange files for bankruptcy”. bbc.com. BBC. 28 February 2014. Retrieved 18 April 2014.

73. For Magic: The Gathering, see Vigna, Paul (25 Feb 2014). “Five Things About Mt. Gox’s Crisis”. The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones and Company. Retrieved 18 April 2014.

  • For waning popularity, see Swan, Noelle (28 February 2014). “MtGox bankruptcy: Bitcoin insiders saw problems with the exchange for months”. csmonitor.com. The Christian Science Moniter. Retrieved 18 April 2014.

74. “Free Exchange. Money from nothing. Chronic deflation may keep Bitcoin from displacing its rivals.” The Economist. 15 March 2014. Retrieved 25 March 2014.

75. Joon Ian Wong (28 November 2013). “CoinMap: Bitcoin-Accepting Merchants Increased 81% in November”. CoinDesk. Retrieved 1 December 2013.

76. To obtain 35,000 figure, 16,000 merchants signed up with Bitcoin payment processor Coinbase are added to 20,000 merchants signed to BitPay.

  • For 16,000 Coinbase merchants, see Alex Williams (12 December 2013). “Coinbase Raises $25M Led By Andreessen Horowitz To Build Its Bitcoin Wallet And Merchant Services”. TechCrunch. Retrieved 13 December 2013.
  • For 20,000 BitPay merchants, see Southurst, Jon (2014-01-14). “Get Paid in Bitcoin With BitPay’s New Payroll API”. Coindesk. Retrieved 2014-01-17.

77. For widely accepted medium of exchange, see Mukherjee, Sampat (2002). Modern Economic Theory. New Age International. p. 755. ISBN 9788122414141.

  • For common medium of exchange, see von Mises, Ludwig (1963). The Theory of Money and Credit. Ludwig von Mises Institute. p. 29. ISBN 9781610163224.

78. Dwivedi (2010). Macroeconomics. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. p. 194. ISBN 9780070091450.

79. Dwivedi (2010). Macroeconomics. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. pp. 198–199. ISBN 9780070091450.

80. “China’s Bitcoin Exchanges Say Banks Will Close Their Accounts”. Bloomberg. 10 April 2014. Retrieved 11 April 2014. “The central bank will keep watching risks from Bitcoin, which is fundamentally not a currency but an investment target, Sheng Songcheng, head of the monetary authority’s statistics department, told reporters in Beijing on Jan. 15 2014.”

81. Michael J. Casey (30 April 2014). “Bloomberg to List Bitcoin Prices, Offering Key Stamp of Approval”. WSJ. Retrieved 1 May 2014.

82. Williams, Mark T (5 December 2013). “Beware Of Bitcoin”. Cognoscenti blog. 90.9 WBUR Boston’s NPR news station. Retrieved 15 April 2014.

83. Wilkes, Tommy (11 April 2013). “Backer defends virtual currency Bitcoin after big fall”. Reuters. Retrieved 2014-01-07.

84. Lee, Timothy B. (4 November 2013). “Bitcoin Doesn’t Have a Deflation Problem”. Forbes. Retrieved 27 January 2014.

85. Roose, Kevin. “How Bitcoin Can Go Mainstream, in One Easy Step – Daily Intelligencer”. Nymag.com. Retrieved 25 November 2013.

86. Colombo, Jesse (2013-12-19). “Bitcoin May Be Following This Classic Bubble Stages Chart”. Forbes. Retrieved 2014-01-07.

  • Moore, Heidi (3 April 2013). “Confused about Bitcoin? It’s ‘the Harlem Shake of currency'”. theguardian.com. The Guardian. Retrieved 2 May 2014.

87. Lee, Timothy (5 November 2013). “When will the people who called Bitcoin a bubble admit they were wrong”. The Washington Post. Retrieved 10 January 2014.

88. Liu, Alec. “When Governments Take Your Money, Bitcoin Looks Really Good | Motherboard”. Motherboard.vice.com. Retrieved 2014-01-07.

89. Lee, Timothy B. (11 April 2013). “An Illustrated History Of Bitcoin Crashes”. Forbes. Retrieved 2014-01-07.

90. “Bitcoin price charts”: Bitcoin Charts.

91. “Bitcoins gain traction in Argentina”. Archived from the original on 29 April 2013..Blogs.ft.com (16 April 2013). Retrieved 20 April 2013.

92. Lee, Timothy B. (19 August 2013). “Five surprising facts about Bitcoin”. Washington Post blog. Archived from the original on 22 August 2013.

93. Salyer, Kirsten (21 March 2013). “Fleeing the Euro for Bitcoins”. Bloomberg L.P. Archived from the original on 10 April 2013.

94. Kearns, Jeff (4 December 2013). “Greenspan Says Bitcoin a Bubble Without Intrinsic Currency Value”.bloomberg.com (Bloomberg LP). Retrieved 23 December 2013.

95. Quiggin, John (16 April 2013). “The Bitcoin Bubble and a Bad Hypothesis”. The National Interest. Archived from the original on 29 April 2013.

96.    Jump up^ For Andresen, see “Bitcoin’s History of Crushing Speculators”. The Motley Fool. 4 April 2013. Retrieved 2014-01-07.

  • For Hearn, see Barford, Vanessa (13 December 2013). “Bitcoin: Price v hype”. bbc.com (BBC). Retrieved 23 December 2013.

97. Shiller, Robert (1 March 2014). “In Search of a Stable Electronic Currency”. New York Times.

98. Boesler, Matthew (7 March 2013). “ANALYST: The Rise Of Bitcoin Teaches A Tremendous Lesson About Global Economics”: Business Insider. Archived from the original on 10 April 2013.

99. Gustke, Constance (23 November 2011). “The Pros And Cons Of Biting on Bitcoins”. CNBC. Archived from the original on 19 January 2013. Retrieved 4 December 2012.

100. Jonathan Stempel date=11 March 2014 (11 March 2014). “Beware Bitcoin: U.S. brokerage regulator.” reuters.com. Retrieved 2014-03-14.

101. “Warning to consumers on virtual currencies”. European Banking Authority. 12 December 2013. Archived from the original on 2013-12-28. Retrieved 23 December 2013.

102. Popper, Nathaniel (18 November 2013). “Regulators See Value in Bitcoin, and Investors Hasten to Agree”. New York Times. Retrieved 27 November 2013.

103. Simonite, Tom (12 June 2013). “Bitcoin Millionaires Become Investing Angels”. Computing News. Retrieved 13 June 2013.

104. “CoinSeed raises $7.5m, invests $5m in Bitcoin mining hardware – Investment Round Up”. Red Herring. 24 January 2014. Retrieved 9 March 2014.

105. Sharf, Samantha (12 May 2013). “Bitcoin Gets Valued: Bank Of America Puts A Price Target On The Virtual Tender”. Forbes (New York).

106. Schroeder, Stan (1 December 2013). “Cameron Winklevoss: Bitcoin Might Hit $40,000 Per Coin”. Mashable (New York).

107. Williams, Mart (DEC. 17, 2013). “FINANCE PROFESSOR: Bitcoin Will Crash To $10 By Mid-2014”.businessinsider.com. Business Insider. Retrieved 26 February 2014.

108. Cawrey, Daniel (7 November 2013). “Federal Reserve economist says bitcoin is a remarkable technical achievement”. CoinDesk. Retrieved 24 November 2013.

109. Paul Krugman (28 December 2013). “Bitcoin Is Evil”. krugman.blogs.nytimes.com. Retrieved 28 December 2013.

110. Andolfatto, David (31 March 2014). “Bitcoin and Beyond: The Possibilities and Pitfalls of Virtual Currencies”. Dialogue with the Fed. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. Retrieved 16 April 2014. “Well-run central banks should welcome the emerging competition. There is (in my view) room for beneficial coexistence.”

  • Wile, Rob (6 April 2014). “St. Louis Fed Economist: Bitcoin Could Be A Good Threat To Central Banks”.businessinsider.com. Business Insider. Retrieved 16 April 2014.
  • Andolfatto, David (24 December 2013). “In gold we trust?” MacroMania. David Andolfatto. Retrieved 17 April 2014. “Also, note that I am not against gold or bitcoin (or whatever) as a currency. In fact, I think that the threat that they pose as alternate currency can serve as a useful check on a central bank.”

111. Sparkes, Matthew (2 December 2013). “Software activist calls for ‘truly anonymous’ Bitcoins to ‘protect democracy'”. London: Telegraph. Retrieved 2013-12-27.

112. Shankland, Stephen (10 December 2013). “PayPal president David Marcus: Bitcoin is good, NFC is bad”. CNET. Retrieved 10 December 2013.

113. Connell, Michael (30 December 2013). “How to use Bitcoin for Stand-up Comedy”. Bitcoin Magazine. Retrieved 22 March 2014.

  • Ashton, Danny (31 December 2013). “Bitcoin Song Commemorates a Year of Bitcoin Fever”. Coin Desk. Retrieved 22 March 2014.
  • Bonney, Jeremy, ed. (31 December 2013). “7 Bitcoin Songs to Listen to Before 2013 is Over”. Bitcoin Examiner. Retrieved 22 March 2014.

114. “Atomic Mall adds Bitcoin payments for approved merchants”. powersellersunite.com. 2013-11-17: Retrieved 8 April 2014.

115. “Clearly Canadian Joins Bitcoin Community”. finance.yahoo.com. Yahoo! Finance. 2013-12-23. Retrieved 10 February 2014.

116. Davidson, Kavitha (16 Jan 2014). “How Many Bitcoins for a Courtside Seat?”. bloomberg.com (Bloomberg LP). Retrieved 20 January 2014.

117. Holpuch, Amanda (22 November 2013). “Virgin Galactic to accept Bitcoin for space flights”. The Guardian. Retrieved 24 November 2013.

118. Kharif, Olga (6 Jan 2014). “Bitcoin Tops $1,000 Again as Zynga Accepts Virtual Money”. bloomberg.com (Bloomberg LP). Retrieved 20 January 2014.

119. Vigna, Paul (22 November 2013). “The University of Bitcoin Rises in Cyprus”. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 22 November 2013.

120. Dougherty, Carter (5 December 2013). “Bankers Balking at Bitcoin in U.S. as Real-World Obstacles Mount”.  bloomberg.com. Bloomberg. Retrieved 16 April 2014.

121. Hill, Kashmir (5 December 2013). “Bitcoin Valued At $1300 By Bank of America Analysts”. Forbes.com. Retrieved 23 March 2014.

122. “IRS Says Bitcoin, Other Convertible Virtual Currency To Be Taxed Like Stock”. Forbes. 25 March 2014. Retrieved 7 April 2014.

123. Coldewey, Devin (8 August 2013). “‘Bitcoin is a currency’: Federal judge says the virtual cash is real money”. NBC News. Retrieved 27 January 2014.

124. Levinthal, Dave (8 May 2014). “What the FEC’s Bitcoin ruling means”. Center for Public Integrity. Retrieved 8 May 2014.

125. “Bitcoin Judged Commodity in Finland After Failing Money Test”. Bloomberg (New York). 20 January 2014. Retrieved 27 January 2014.

126. Chapman, Lizette (12 December 2013). “Coinbase to Push Bitcoin From Commodity to Currency, With $25M From Investors”. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 27 January 2014.

127. Woodhill, Louis (4 November 2013). “Bitcoins Are Digital Collectibles, Not Real Money”. Forbes. Retrieved 27 January 2014.

128. Bergstra, J. A., & Weijland, P. (2014). Bitcoin: a money-like informational commodity. arXiv preprint arXiv:1402.4778.[1]

129. European Central Bank (October 2012). “1” (PDF). Virtual Currency Schemes. Frankfurt am Main: European Central Bank. p. 5. ISBN 978-92-899-0862-7. Retrieved 5 March 2014.

130. Strauss, Steven (14 April 2013). “Nine Trust-Based Problems With Bitcoin”. The Huffington Post. Retrieved 20 October 2013.

131. Grocer, Stephen (2 July 2013). “Beware the Risks of the Bitcoin: Winklevii Outline the Downside”. Moneybeat. Retrieved 21 October 2013.

132. Duhaime, Christine. “Canada to Regulate Bitcoin, Digital Currencies and online casinos under its anti-money laundering and counter-terrorist financing laws”. Retrieved 7 March 2014. Duhaime Law

133. Duhaime, Christine. “1st Canadian official regulatory response to Bitcoin highlights Ponzi scheme and money laundering risks”. Retrieved 7 March 2014. Duhaime Law

134. “China’s banks give deadline for bitcoin exchanges to close their trading accounts”. TechIn Asia. 10 April 2014. Retrieved 9 May 2014. “China’s bitcoin exchanges are being issued with formal notices stating that their bank accounts must be closed by April 15. China’s BTC Trade exchange announced today that it has been contacted by its bank and told to remove all funds prior to the deadline or else the assets will be frozen.”

135. “Regulation of Bitcoin in Selected Jurisdictions”. Retrieved 8 April 2014.

136. “Cyprus Central Bank warns about risks in use of Bitcoin”. Retrieved 11 December 2013.

137. Vallikappen, Sanat (13 March 2014). “Singapore to Regulate Bitcoin Operators for Laundering Risk”. Bloomberg. Retrieved 23 March 2014.

138. Template: Title=Bitcoin, Digital Currency and the Internet of Money

139. Summary of Bank of Japan Press Conference, at 10

140. “Russia: Bitcoin Exchanges Can Be Penalized”. The Library of Congress. 2 February 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2014.

141. “Singapore acts first to regulate Bitcoin”. New Europe. 23 March 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2014.

142. Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (2011-07-21). “Financial Crimes Enforcement Network”. Bank Secrecy Act Regulations; Definitions and Other Regulations Relating to Money Services Businesses. Federal register. p. 76 FR 43585. Retrieved 6 March 2014. “31 C.F.R. § 1010.100(ff)(5)(i)(A)”

143. “FIN-2013-G001: Application of FinCEN’s Regulations to Persons Administering, Exchanging, or Using Virtual Currencies”. Financial Crimes Enforcement Network. 18 March 2013. p. 6. Retrieved 4 March 2014.

144. Lee, Timothy (20 March 2013). “US regulator Bitcoin Exchanges Must Comply With Money Laundering Laws”. Arstechnica. “Bitcoin miners must also register if they trade in their earnings for dollars.”

145. “Specially Designated Nationals List (SDN)”. Resource Center. US Treasury. 20 March 2014. Retrieved 24 March 2014.

146.”FIN-2014-R007: Application of Money Services Business regulations to the rental of computer systems for mining virtual currency”. Financial Crimes Enforcement Network. 29 April 2014. Retrieved 10 May 2014.

147. “FIN-2014-R005: Whether a Company that Offers Secured Transaction Services to a Buyer and Seller in a Given Sale of Goods or Services is a Money Transmitter.”. Financial Crimes Enforcement Network. 29 April 2014. Retrieved 10 May 2014.

148. Andrew Moran (1 May 2014). “U.S. FinCEN confirms bitcoin escrow, cloud mining not money transmitters”. CoinBuzz. Retrieved 10 May 2014.

149. US Government Accountability Office (May 2013). “Virtual Economies and currencies: Additional IRS guidance could reduce tax compliance risks”. GAO Report GAO-13-516. Report to the Committee on Finance, U.S. Senate. Retrieved 6 March 2014.

150. IRS (25 March 2014). “IRS Virtual Currency Guidance”. Notice 2014-21. IRS. Retrieved 30 March 2014.

151. Miedema, Douwe (11 March 2014). “U.S. swaps watchdog says considering bitcoin regulation”. Reuters.com. Retrieved 11 March 2014.

152. “In the Matter of Virtual Currency Exchanges”. Public Order. New York State Department of Financial Services. 11 March 2014. Retrieved 30 March 2014.

153. Goodman, Lee E. (8 May 2014). “FEC Advisory Opinion 2014-02″. Federal Election Commission. Retrieved 8 May 2014.

154.”Investor Alert: Bitcoin and Other Virtual Currency-Related Investments”. Investor.gov. U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. Retrieved May 13, 2014.

155. “Guidance for a Risk-Based Approach: Prepaid Cards, Mobile Payments and Internet-based Payment Services” (PDF). Guidance for a risk-based approach. Paris: Financial Action Task Force (FATF). June 2013. p. 47. Retrieved 6 March 2014.

156. “Bitcoins Virtual Currency: Unique Features Present Challenges for Deterring Illicit Activity”. Cyber Intelligence Section and Criminal Intelligence Section. FBI. 24 April 2012. Retrieved 20 October 2013.

157. For obfuscation of transactions and seizure of bitcoins from black market Utopia, see Kelion, Leo (12 February 2014). “Five arrested in Utopia dark net marketplace crackdown”. bbc.co.uk (BBC). Retrieved 13 February 2014.

  • For seizure of bitcoins from black market Silk Road, see Greenberg, Andy (25 October 2013). “FBI Says It’s Seized $28.5 Million In Bitcoins From Ross Ulbricht, Alleged Owner Of Silk Road”. Forbes. Retrieved 24 November 2013.

158. For Bitcoin enthusiasts worries that the currency may be stigmatized as “drug barter tokens”, see Chen, Adrian (1 June 2011). “The Underground Website Where You Can Buy Any Drug Imaginable”.. Gawker.

  • For attention by law enforcement and regulatory bodies, see Lavin, Tim (8 August 2013). “The SEC Shows Why Bitcoin Is Doomed”. bloomberg.com (Bloomberg LP). Retrieved 20 October 2013.

159. Sanati, Cyrus (18 December 2012). “Bitcoin looks primed for money laundering”. money.cnn.com (CNN). Retrieved 18 October 2013.

160. Timothy B. Lee and Hayley Tsukayama (2 October 2013). “Authorities shut down Silk Road, the world’s largest Bitcoin-based drug market”. The Washington Post. Retrieved 21 October 2013.

161. For claim, see “Developing a More Open Economy”. bitcoinfoundation.org. Bitcoin Foundation. Retrieved 4 March 2014. “Cryptography is the key to Bitcoin’s success. It’s the reason that no one can double spend, counterfeit or steal Bitcoins.”

  • For widespread theft, see “Bitcoin under pressure”. economist.com (The Economist Newspaper Limited). 30 Nov 2013. Retrieved 4 March 2014. “there have also been many cases of Bitcoin theft”

162. Christin, Nicolas (2013). “Traveling the Silk Road: A Measurement Analysis of a Large Anonymous Online Marketplace”. Carnegie Mellon INI/CyLab. p. 8. Retrieved 22 October 2013. “we suggest to compare the estimated total volume of Silk Road transactions with the estimated total volume of transactions at all Bitcoin exchanges (including Mt.Gox, but not limited to it). The latter corresponds to the amount of money entering and leaving the Bitcoin network, and statistics for it are readily available… approximately 1,335,580 BTC were exchanged on Silk Road… approximately 29,553,384 BTC were traded in Bitcoin exchanges over the same period… The only conclusion we can draw from this comparison is that Silk Road-related trades could plausibly correspond to 4.5% to 9% of all exchange trades”

163. For law enforcement action, see “Bitcoin price plummets after Silk Road closure”. The Guardian. 2013-10-03. “Digital currency loses quarter of value after arrest of Ross Ulbricht, who is accused of running online drugs marketplace”

  • For drop in value, see Robert McMillan (2013-10-02). “Bitcoin Values Plummet $500M, Then Recover, After Silk Road Bust”. Wired.

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167. Geuss, Megan (24 August 2013). “Firm says online gambling accounts for almost half of all Bitcoin transactions”. Ars Technica. Retrieved 21 October 2013.

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172. For FBI, see “Bitcoins Virtual Currency: Unique Features Present Challenges for Deterring Illicit Activity”.  Cyber Intelligence Section and Criminal Intelligence Section. FBI. 24 April 2012. Retrieved 20 October 2013.

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191. Rizzo, Pete (4 March 2014). “Bitcoin bank Flexcoin to close after $600,000 bitcoin theft”. CoinDesk. Retrieved 7 March 2014.

192. Finkle, Jim (24 February 2014). “‘Pony’ botnet steals bitcoins, digital currencies: Trustwave”. Reuters. Retrieved 7 March 2014.

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